MACRA Toolkit

In April 2015, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA) was signed into law, permanently repealing an outdated, 18-year-old formula for reimbursing providers under Medicare. Year 1 of the program began in 2017.

More specifically, MACRA is bipartisan legislation that repealed the sustainable growth rate formula and also will change the way that Medicare rewards healthcare professionals for value over volume. MACRA establishes a new payment system called the Quality Payment Program (QPP) with two pathways for linking payment to quality and value. The Merit-based Incentive Payments System (MIPS) allows clinicians to earn a positive payment adjustment by reporting in the following categories: quality, improvement activities, advancing care information (replaces Meaningful Use), and cost. Clinicians may also participate in Advanced Alternative Payment Models (APMs), where practices can earn more for taking on some risk related to their patients’ outcomes. MACRA itself reflects more than 10 years’ worth of advocacy by the AGS, its members, and a diverse cadre of other stakeholders committed to affecting change to improve the health and care of older adults.

Year 2 of the program will begin January 1, 2018. In November 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released the final rule outlining the parameters for MIPS and Advanced APMs under the QPP for Year 2. We will continue to update the toolkit with resources as CMS releases further guidance.


The AGS has pulled together resources to help you navigate these changes.

What You Need to Know to Be Prepared for MACRA

In April 2015, legislation was signed into the law that permanently repealed an outdated, 18-year-old formula for reimbursing providers under Medicare. This milestone reflects more than 10 years' worth of advocacy by the AGS and a multitude of other stakeholders committed to improving care of older adults. This change will affect physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, and certified registered nurse anesthetists.

When will MACRA be implemented? 

MIPS and Advanced APMs went into effect in 2017. Reporting started in 2017 will affect payments in 2019. In 2017, CMS allowed clinicians to report measures and perform activities for a minimum of 90 continuous days – this means that clinicians were able to collect data any time between January 1 and October 2. Here is a timeline of what to expect and when.

Understanding the New Quality Payment Program (QPP)

The QPP is a new payment approach, recognizing value and effectiveness of care provided by clinicians. The goal is to shift the payment system from quantity to quality, thus improving care for Medicare patients. This system includes two paths:


MIPS will factor in 4 weighted performance categories: Quality, Advancing Care Information, Improvement Activities and Cost. Performance in these categories will be combined into one score called the MIPS Composite Performance Score (CPS) on a 0-100 point scale. The CPS will be compared to a “Performance Threshold” and clinicians’ Medicare Part B payments will be adjusted up or down based on whether they are above or below the threshold. 

More on the MIPS Performance Categories (percentages listed are for 2017):

  1. Quality (60%): This category will replace the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS). Generally, clinicians will select and report on 6 measures to be evaluated on. Unlike PQRS, which was a pay-for-reporting system, clinicians’ performance on these measures will be evaluated based on benchmarks.
  2. Advancing Care Information (ACI) (25%): This category will replace the previous Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, "Meaningful Use." While there are certain mandatory measures, MIPS creates a more customizable experience for clinicians, allowing them to choose which additional measures to emphasize in their scoring.
  3. Improvement Activities (15%): In this new performance category, clinicians are rewarded for performing activities identified as improving clinical practice or care delivery, such as activities related to care coordination, patient engagement, and patient safety, that are likely to result in improved outcomes. Clinicians will select up to four activities to receive a maximum score in this category.
  4. Cost (0%): This category will replace the "Value-Based Modifier" and evaluate clinicians on relevant cost measures. This category will not require any data submission and will be calculated based on adjudicated claims. CMS will provide feedback on measure scores based on 2017 performance but those scores will not count toward the 2017 CPS. Beginning in 2018, the category will contribute to a clinician's CPS.

Advanced APMs

APMs are a new approach that incentivizes clinicians providing exceptionally high quality and value of care. Those who participate in the most advanced APMs may qualify as qualifying APM participants (QPs). QPs would be exempt from MIPS and qualify for 5% incentive payments. 

More about APMs:

Support for small practices using MIPS or APMs

CMS has outlined some ways the new QPP can offer flexibility and support to small practices.

2017 MIPS Quality Measures Relevant to Geriatrics

To help members participate in quality reporting under MIPS, a workgroup of the AGS Quality and Performance Measurement Committee reviewed the 300+ quality measures approved by CMS for reporting in 2017 and identified 10 quality measures that were 1) most likely to be relevant to geriatricians’ clinical practice and 2) most likely to be measures where geriatricians will perform well relative to other clinicians. Click here to read the workgroup’s recommendations and to learn more about important requirements and payment changes under MACRA. NOTE: These quality measures are suggestions based on the workgroup’s review. Individual clinicians or practices may find other measures better fit their practice. These measures are not part of an official CMS-designated Specialty Measure Set or developed or endorsed by the AGS.